EAS 8802
Graduate Seminars: "Aerosols and Precipitation"

Instructor:
Professor Irina N. Sokolik
office 2258, ph.404-894-6180
email: isokolik@eas.gatech.edu

Location and meeting time:
Mondays 3:05-4:55 PM
ES&T L1175

Jan. 7. Lecture 1. What this course is about? Course structure and logistic
Jan. 14. Lecture 2. Introductory survey
Jan. 21. No Class
Jan. 28. Lecture 3. Impacts of aerosols on clouds/precipitation in the Arctic: In-search for observational evidence
Background materials
   
Presentation by Terry Lathem
  Required reading Girard, E., Jean-Pierre Blanche, and Y. Dubois, Effects of arctic sulphuric acid aerosols on wintertime low-level atmospheric ice crystals, humidity and temperature at Alert, Nunavut. Atmospheric Research 73, Issues 1-2, 2005.
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Garrett, T. J. and C. Zhao, Increased Arctic cloud longwave emissivity associated with pollution from mid-latitudes. Nature, 440, 10.1038/nature04636, 787-789, 2006.
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  Recommended reading (for Lectures 3-4): Quinn, P. K., Shaw, G., Andrews, E., Dutton, E. G., Ruoho-Airola, T., and Gong, S. L.: Arctic. Haze: Current trends and knowledge gaps, Tellus, 59B, 99-114, 2007.
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Law, K.S., and A. Stohl, Arctic Air Pollution: Origins and Impacts. Science 315. no. 5818, pp. 1537 - 1540, 2007.
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Feb. 4 Lecture 4. Impacts of aerosols on clouds/precipitation in the Arctic: Insights from models
    Presentation by Zheng Lu

Summary of Lectures 3-4
  Required reading Hansen, J., and L. Nazarenko, Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 101, 423-428, doi:10.1073/pnas.2237157100, 2004.
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Lohmann, U., J. Zhang, and J. Pi, 2003: Sensitivity study of the effect of increased aerosol concentrations and snow crystal shapes on the snowfall rate in the Arctic. J. Geophys. Res., 108, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003377.
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Feb. 11 Lecture 5. How aerosols affect marine low level warm clouds and drizzle
Background Materials
    Presentation by Prashant Kumar
  Required reading Xue, H., and G. Feingold, Large eddy simulations of tradewind cumuli: Investigation of aerosol indirect effects. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1605-1622, 2006.
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Guo, H., Penner, J. E., Herzog, M., and Pawlowska, H., Examination of the aerosol indirect effect under contrasting environments during the ACE-2 experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 535-548, 2007.
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  Recommended reading Pawlowska, H., and J. Brenguier, An observational study of drizzle formation in stratocumulus clouds for general circulation model (GCM) parameterizations, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D15), 8630, doi:10.1029/2002JD002679, 2003.
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Lohmann U. and J. Fletcher, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review. Atmos. Chem. Phys, 5, 715-737, 2005.
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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. T. Kiehl, and D. Rosenfeld, Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science, Vol. 294. no. 5549, pp. 2119 - 2124, DOI:10.1126/science. 1064034, 2001.
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Feb. 18 Lecture 6. How aerosols affect deep convective clouds and precipitation
Background materials for Lectures 6-7
  Required reading Khain et al., Aerosol impact on the dymanics and microphysics of deep convectice clouds. Q.J.R.Meteorol. Soc. 131, 2639-2663, 2005.
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Feb. 25 Lecture 7. Cloud type-dependent aerosol effects on precipitation
    Presentation by Wei-Chun Hsieh

Summary of Lectures 5-7
  Required reading Tao et al., Role of atmospheric aerosol concentration on deep convective precipitation: Cloud-resolving model simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S18, doi:10,1029/2007JD008728, 2007.
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  Recommended reading Rauber et al., Rain in Shallow Cumulus Over the Ocean: The RICO Campaign. BAMS 88, 12, DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-88-12-1912, 2007.
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Matsui et al., Impact of aerosols and atmospheric thermodynamics on cloud properties within the climate system. Geophys. Res. Letters, 31(6), L06109, 10.1029/2003GL019287, 2004.
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Mar. 3 Lecture 8. How urban air pollution affects precipittaion
    Presentation by Erica Alston
  Required reading Jirak, I.L., and W.R. Cotton, Effect of air pollution on precipitation along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 45, 236-245, 2006.
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van den Heever, S., and W.R. Cotton, Urban aerosol impcats on downwind convective storms. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46, 828-850, 2007.
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  Recommended reading Rosenfeld, D., Suppression of rain and snow by urban and industrial air pollution. Science, 287, 1793-1796, 2000.
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Shepherd, J.M., A review of current investigations of urban-induced rainfall and recomendations for the future. Earth Intercations 9, 2005.
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March 10 Lecture 9. How smoke affects cloud and precipitation
    Presentation by Xin Xi
  Required reading Lin, J.C., T. Matsui, R.A. Pielke Sr., and C. Kummerow, Effects of biomass burning-derived aerosols on precipitation and clouds in the Amazon Basin: A satellite-based empirical study. Journal of Geophysical Research – Aerosol and Clouds. 111, D19204, doi:10.1029/2005JD006884, 2006.
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Feingold, G., H. Jiang, and J. Y. Harrington, On smoke suppression of clouds in Amazonia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L02804, 10.1029/2004GL021369, 2005.
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  Recommended reading Andreae M.O, D. Rosenfeld, P. Artaxo, A. A. Costa, G. P. Frank, K. M. Longo, and M. A. F. Silva- Dias: Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon. Science, 303, 1337-1342, 2004.
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Koren, I., Y. J. Kaufman, L. A. Remer, and J. V. Martins, Measurement of the Effect of Amazon Smoke on Inhibition of Cloud Formation. Science 303 (5662), 1342 - 1345, 2004.
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March 17 NO CLASS. Spring break
March 24 Lecture 10. How mineral aerosols can affects cloud and precipitation
    Presentation by Hyung-Jin Choi
  Required reading Rudich, Y., D. Rosenfeld and O. Khersonsky, Treating clouds with a grain of salt, Geophysical Research Letters, 29(21) 10.1029/2002GL016055, 2002.
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Levin, Z., A. Teller, E. Ganor, and Y. Yin, On the interactions of mineral dust, sea-salt particles, and clouds: A measurement and modeling study from the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment campaign. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D20202, doi:10.1029/2005JD005810, 2005.
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  Recommended reading Rosenfeld, D., Y. Rudich, and R. Lahav, Desert dust suppressing precipitation: A possible desertification feedback loop. PNAS, 98, 5975 - 5980, 2001.
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Yin, Y., and L. Chen, The effects of heating by transported dust layers on cloud and precipitation: a numerical study. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 3497–3505, 2007
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March 31 Lecture 11. Can dust cause droughts?
    Presentation by Anton Darmenov

Summary of Lectures 10-11
  Required reading Cook et al., Dust and sea surface temperature forcing of the 1930’s ‘Dust Bowl’ drought. Geohp. Res. Letters, subm., 2008.
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Yoshioka et al., Impact of Desert Dust Radiative Forcing on Sahel Precipitation: Relative Importance of Dust Compared to Sea Surface Temperature Variations, Vegetation Changes, and Greenhouse Gas Warming. Journal of Climate, 20, 1445-1467, 2007.
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  Recommended reading Miller, R., I. Tegen, and J. Perlwitz, 2004: Surface radiative forcing by soil dust aerosols and the hydrologic cycle. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04203, doi:10.1029/2003JD004085. PDF copy
April 7 Lecture 12. Main mechanisms through which aerosols might affect precipitation: contrasting soot and dust aerosols
    Discussion
  Recommended reading Menon, S. 2004. Current uncertainties in assessing aerosol effects on climate. Ann. Rev. Environ. Resources 29, 1-30, doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.29.063003.132549
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April 14 Lecture 13. Course summary
    Discussion

Impacts of BC: Summary

Impacts of Dust: Summary

Impacts of Sulfates: Summary
April 21 Lecture 14. Course summary
    Discussion
  Recommended reading WMO/IUGG INTERNATIONAL AEROSOL PRECIPITATION SCIENCE ASSESSMENT GROUP(IAPSAG)
Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation: A Scientific Review
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