Input documentation for SBDART

                   Paul Ricchiazzi 
                   Institute for Computational Earth System Science
                   University of California, Santa Barbara


This file documents input parameters for SBDART, (Santa Barbara DISORT
Atmospheric Radiative Transfer).  SBDART is a software tool that computes
plane-parallel radiative transfer in clear and cloudy conditions within the
Earth's atmosphere and at the surface.  For a general description and review
of the program please refer to Ricchiazzi et al 1998. (Bulletin of the
American Meteorological Society, October 1998).

SBDART's main input file is called INPUT. This file contains a single
NAMELIST input block also named INPUT.  A significant advantage of NAMELIST
input is that not all elements of an input block need be specified by the
user.  Since most of the code inputs have been initialized with reasonable
default values, new users can start by specifying just a few interesting
input parameters.  The default state of input parameters may be determined
by removing INPUT from the current working directory.  When SBDART detects
the absense of file INPUT, it will print the default settings of all input
parameters.  This output may be redirected to a file for editing.

The default configuration of INPUT is as follows:

==========================================================================

 $INPUT
 idatm   =  4            ,  amix    =  0.0        ,  isat    =  0           ,
 wlinf   =  0.550        ,  wlsup   =  0.550      ,  wlinc   =  0.0         ,
 sza     =  0.0          ,  csza    =  -1.0       ,  solfac  =  1.0         ,
 nf      =  2            ,  iday    =  0          ,  time    =  16.0        ,
 alat    =  -64.7670     ,  alon    =  -64.0670   ,  zpres   =  -1.0        ,
 pbar    =  -1.0         ,  sclh2o  =  -1.0       ,  uw      =  -1.0        ,
 uo3     =  -1.0         ,  o3trp   =  -1.0       ,  ztrp    =  0.0         ,
 xrsc    =  1.0          ,  xn2     =  -1.0       ,  xo2     =  -1.0        ,
 xco2    =  -1.0         ,  xch4    =  -1.0       ,  xn2o    =  -1.0        ,
 xco     =  -1.0         ,  xno2    =  -1.0       ,  xso2    =  -1.0        ,
 xnh3    =  -1.0         ,  xno     =  -1.0       ,  xhno3   =  -1.0        ,
 xo4     =  1.0          ,  isalb   =  0          ,  albcon  =  0.0         ,
 sc      =  1.0,3*0.0    ,  zcloud  =  5*0.0      ,  tcloud  =  5*0.0       ,
 lwp     =  5*0.0        ,  nre     =  5*8.0      ,  rhcld   =  -1.0        ,
 krhclr  =  0            ,  jaer    =  5*0        ,  zaer    =  5*0.0       ,
 taerst  =  5*0.0        ,  iaer    =  0          ,  vis     =  23.0        ,
 rhaer   =  -1.0         ,  wlbaer  =  47*0.0     ,  tbaer   =  47*0.0      ,
 abaer   =  -1.0         ,  wbaer   =  47*0.950   ,  gbaer   =  47*0.70     ,
 pmaer   =  940*0.0      ,  zbaer   =  50*-1.0    ,  dbaer   =  50*-1.0     ,
 nothrm  =  -1           ,  nosct   =  0          ,  kdist   =  3           ,
 zgrid1  =  0.0          ,  zgrid2  =  30.0       ,  ngrid   =  50          ,
 ickp    =  0            ,  zout    =  0.0,100.0  ,  iout    =  10          ,
 deltam  =  t            ,  lamber  =  t          ,  ibcnd   =  0           ,
 phi0    =  0.0          ,  prnt    =  7*f        ,  ipth    =  1           ,
 fisot   =  0.0          ,  temis   =  0.0        ,  nstr    =  4           ,
 nzen    =  0            ,  uzen    =  20*-1.0    ,  nphi    =  0           ,
 phi     =  20*-1.0      ,  imom    =  0          ,  negprn  =  0           ,
 ttemp   =  -1.0         ,  btemp   =  -1.0
 $END

=======================================================================

NOTE: Unfortunately, many fortran compilers produce rather cryptic error
      messages in response to improper NAMELIST input files.  Here are
      three common NAMELIST error messages and their meaning:

      1. ERROR MESSAGE: invalid reference to variable in NAMELIST input
         MEANING:       you misspelled one of the NAMELIST variable names

      2. ERROR MESSAGE: end-of-file during read
         MEANING:       you didn't include a NAMELIST block specifier
                        (INPUT, DINPUT or END) or you misspelled it.

      3. ERROR MESSAGE: too many values for NAMELIST variable
         MEANING:       you specified too many values for a variable,
                        most likely because you separated variables by
                        more than one comma.


                       General options (NAMELIST $INPUT):
                       =====================================



                WAVELENGTH LIMITS, FILTER FUNCTION SPECIFICATION
                ================================================



  NF:           SOLAR SPECTRUM SELECTOR

               -1 = read from file solar.dat (user supplied)

                    read(13,*) nw,wmin,wmax,(sun(i),i=1,nw)

                    where nw is the number of spectral entries
                          wmin is the minimum wavenumber (cm-1)
                          wmax is the maximum wavenumber (cm-1)
                          sun is the solar irradiance at the top of the
                            atmosphere (w/m2/um) at equal increments
                            of wavenumber between wmin and wmax.

                0 = spectrally uniform

                1 = 5s solar spectrum
                    0.005 micron resolution,  .25 to 4 micron

                2 = LOWTRAN_7 solar spectrum
                    20 cm-1 resolution,       0. to 28780 cm-1
                    10 cm-1 resolution,   28780. to 57490 cm-1

                3 = MODTRAN_3 solar spectrum
                    20 cm-1 resolution,       100 - 49960 cm-1


  ISAT:         FILTER FUNCTION TYPES

               -4  Guassian filter, WLINF-2*WLSUP to WLINF+2*WLSUP
               -3  Trianglar filter, WLINF-WLSUP to WLINF+WLSUP
               -2  Flat filter, WLINF-.5*WLSUP to WLINF+.5*WLSUP
               -1  USER DEFINED, read from filter.dat
                0  WLINF TO WLSUP WITH FILTER FUNCTION = 1      (default)
                1  METEO
                2  GOES(EAST)
                3  GOES(WEST)
                4  AVHRR1(NOAA8)
                5  AVHRR2(NOAA8)
                6  AVHRR1(NOAA9)
                7  AVHRR2(NOAA9)
                8  AVHRR1(NOAA10)
                9  AVHRR2(NOAA10)
               10  AVHRR1(NOAA11)
               11  AVHRR2(NOAA11)
               12  GTR-100 ch1
               13  GTR-100 ch2
               14  GTR-100 410nm channel
               15  GTR-100 936nm channel
               16  MFRSR 415nm channel
               17  MFRSR 500nm channel
               18  MFRSR 610nm channel
               19  MFRSR 665nm channel
               20  MFRSR 862nm channel
               21  MFRSR 940nm channel
               22  AVHRR3 (nominal)
               23  AVHRR4 (nominal)
               24  AVHRR5 (nominal)
               25  Biological action spectra for DNA damage by UVB radiation


                   NOTE: If ISAT=-1 a user supplied filter data file
                         "filter.dat" is read from the current working
                         directory. This ASCII file is read with the
                         following free format read (numbers may be
                         separated by spaces, commas or carriage returns);

                         read(13,*) wmin,wmax,dww,nnf,(srr(i),i=1,nnf)

                         where, wmin = minimum wavelength (microns)
                                wmax = maximum wavelength (microns)
                                dww  = wavelength increment (microns)
                                nnf  = number of wavelengths ( <= 200 )
                                srr  = filter function value



  WLINF:        lower wavelength limit when ISAT=0    (WLINF > .250 microns)
                central wavelength when ISAT=-2,-3,-4

  WLSUP:        upper wavelength limit when ISAT=0    (WLSUP < 100.0  microns)
                equivalent width when ISAT=-2,-3,-4

                NOTE:

                If ISAT eq -2, a rectangular filter (constant with
                wavelength) is used, with central wavelength at WLINF
                and an equivalent width of WLSUP (full width = WLSUP)

                If ISAT eq -3, a triangular filter function is used with
                the central wavelength at WLINF and an equivalent width of
                WLSUP (full width = 2*WLSUP) (filter function is zero at end
                points, and one at WLINF).

                If ISAT eq -4, a gaussian filter function is used with
                the central wavelength at WLINF and an equivalent width of
                WLSUP (full width = 4*WLSUP)

                If output is desired at a single wavelength, set
                WLINF=WLSUP and ISAT=0.  In this case, SBDART will
                set WLINC=1 (the user specified value of WLINC is ignored)
                and the output will be in units of (W/m2/um) for
                irradiance and (W/m2/um/sr) for radiance.


  WLINC:        This parameter specifies the spectral resolution of the
                SBDART run.  Though the spectral limits of the calculation
                are always input in terms of wavelength, the spectral
                step size can be specified in terms of constant
                increments of wavelength, log(wavelength) [same as
                constant increment of log(wavenumber)] or wavenumber.
                Which one to choose depends on where in the spectral
                bandpass you want to place the most resolution.

                Since SBDART is based on LOWTRAN7 band models, which
                have a spectral resolution of 20 cm-1, it would be extreme
                overkill to allow spectral step size less than 1 cm-1. On
                the other hand a spectral resolution coarser than 1 um
                is also pretty useless. Therefore the way WLINC is
                interpreted depends on whether it is less than zero,
                between zero and one, or greater than 1.

              * WLINC = 0 (the default) =>  wavelength increment is
                equal to 0.005 um or 1/10 the wavelength range, which
                ever is smaller.

              * WLINC < 0 => wavelength increment is a constant fraction
                of the current wavelength.  WLINC is interpreted as
                a specified value of delta(lambda)/lambda and the
                wavelength steps are adjusted so that wavelength step is
                approximately the product of the current wavelength and
                WLINC.

                Specifying the wavelength increment as a fractional
                step size is useful when the wavelength range extends
                over more than an decade of wavelength.  For example,
                if the wavelength range is 0.5 to 20.0, specifying a
                constant wavelength increment of .01 microns tends to
                under-resolve the low wavelengths and over-resolve the
                long wavelengths.  Setting WLINC = -.01 causes the
                code to use a wavelength increment of about .005
                microns in the visible and about .2 micron in the
                thermal infrared, which is a better compromise of
                resolution and computer time.


              * 1 >= WLINC > 0    => WLINC is the wavelength step size (um)

                if WLINC > 1 then WLINC is the step size in inverse
                centimeters.  If maximum fidelity is required and
                gaseous absorption is the primary influence on the
                output, then WLINC should be set to 20, which is the
                wavenumber resolution of the LOWTRAN7 band models.

                The total number of wavelength steps, nwl, is given by

                 nwl = 1+ln(wlsup/wlinf)/|wlinc|          wlinc < 0

                 nwl = 1+(wlsup-wlinf)/wlinc             1 >= wlinc > 0

                 nwl = 1+10000*(1/wlinf-1/wlsup)/wlinc    wlinc > 1



                SOLAR GEOMETRY
                ==============

  SZA:          solar zenith angle (degrees) (default = 0.)
                SZA is ignored if CSZA is non-negative or IDAY is non-zero.

  CSZA:         Cosine of solar zenith angle.  If CSZA > 0, solar
                zenith angle is set to acos(CSZA) (default = -1.)

  IDAY:         If IDAY > 0, the solar illumination angles (SZA, PHI0)
                are computed from the specified time and geographic
                coordinates using an internal solar ephemeris
                algorithm (see subroutine zensun). IDAY is the number
                of days into a standard "year", assumed to consist of
                365 days.  if IDAY > 365, IDAY is replaced internally
                by mod(IDAY-1,365)+1.

                If IDAY < 0, the code writes the values of abs(iday),time,
                alat,alon,sza,azm, and solfac to standard output and exits.

  TIME:         UTC time (Grenwich) in decimal hours
  ALAT:         latitude of point on earth's surface
  ALON:         east longitude of point on earth's surface

                NOTE: TIME, ALAT and ALON are ignored if IDAY .eq. 0

  SOLFAC:       solar distance factor.  Use this factor to account
                for seasonal variations of the earth-sun distance.
                If R is the earth-sun distance in Astronomical Units
                then SOLFAC=1./R**2.  SOLFAC is set internally when the
                solar geometry is set through IDAY, TIME, ALAT and ALON.
                In this case SOLFAC is set to,
                                                             -2
                SOLFAC = ( 1.-eps*cos(2*pi*(IDAY-perh)/365) )

                where eps  = orbital eccentricity = 0.01673
                and   perh = day of perihelion    = 2           (jan 2)

                NOTE: seasonal variations in earth-sun distance
                      produce a +/-3.4% perturbation in the TOA solar
                      flux.  This factor should be included when
                      making detailed comparisons to surface
                      measurements.

  NOSCT:        If set to 1, compute radiative flux due to thermal
                sources only.  Solar direct or scattered radiation
                is not included.  Thermal sources are not computed
                for wavelengths less than 2um unless NOTHRM=0.


                 SURFACE REFLECTANCE PROPERTIES
                 ==============================

  ISALB:         SURFACE ALBEDO FEATURE

                -1 -spectral surface albedo read from "albedo.dat"
                 0 -user specified, spectrally uniform, surface albedo
                 1 -snow
                 2 -clear water
                 3 -lake water
                 4 -sea  water
                 5 -sand
                 6 -vegetation
                10 -combination of snow, seawater, sand and vegetation

                NOTE: If ISALB=-1 a user supplied spectral reflectance
                      data file, "albedo.dat" is read from the current
                      working directory. This ASCII file is read with the
                      following free format read statements:

                      read(13,*) nn,wmin,wmax
                      read(13,*,end=900) (r(i),i=1,nn)

                      where, nn = number of sample points (nn .le. 751)
                             wmin = minimum wavelength
                             wmax = maximum wavelength
                              r  = spectral reflectivity
                                  such that r(i) is at wavelength
                                  wmin+(i-1)*(wmax-wmin)/(nn-1)

                The user specified reflectance may cover any
                wavelength range and have arbitrarily high resolution.
                This contrasts with the standard reflectance models
                (sand, vegetation, lake water and sea water) which are
                only specified in in the range .25 to 4 um at 5nm
                resolution.

  ALBCON:       User specified, spectrally uniform, surface albedo
                (applies only when ISALB=0)

  SC:           Composite albedo fractions (applies only when ISALB=10)
                SC(1) = fraction of snow
                SC(2) = fraction of ocean
                SC(3) = fraction of sand
                SC(4) = fraction of vegetation

                NOTE:   SC(1)+SC(2)+SC(3)+SC(4) need not sum to 1.
                        Thus, it is possible to use the SC factor to
                        boost the overall reflectance of a given
                        surface type.  For example, SC=0,0,2,0 would
                        compute the effects over a surface whose
                        spectral reflectivity were twice that of sand.
                        But be careful, SC=2,0,0,0 will produce a
                        surface reflectance twice that of snow, which
                        will produce a reflectance greater than unity
                        at visible wavelengths.


                MODEL ATMOSPHERES
                =================
                                        default               ozone(atm-cm)
  IDATM:        ATMOSPHERIC PROFILE:     water vapor (g/cm2)  total  below_10km
                ------------------      -------------------  -------------
                1-TROPICAL                     4.117         0.253   .0216
                2-MID-LATITUDE SUMMER          2.924         0.324   .0325
                3-MID-LATITUDE WINTER          0.854         0.403   .0336
                4-SUB-ARCTIC SUMMER            2.085         0.350   .0346
                5-SUB-ARCTIC WINTER            0.418         0.486   .0340
                6-US62                         1.418         0.349   .0252

                If IDATM = 0, a user supplied atmospheric profile,
                "atms.dat", is read from the current working
                directory.  This ASCII file is read with the following
                free format read statements (input values may be
                separated by spaces, commas or carriage returns);

                     read(13,*) nn
                     do 10 i=1,nn
                       read(13,*) z(i),p(i),t(i),wh(i),wo(i)
                10   continue

                     where nn is the number atmospheric layers (nn .le. 50)
                           z  is the layer altitude in km
                              (z must be monotonically decreasing)
                           p  is the pressure in millibars
                           t  is the temperature is Kelvin
                           wh water vapor density g/m3
                           wo ozone density g/m3

                If IDATM is set to a negative number in the range -1 to -6
                one of the standard atmospheres are used to form a new
                atmospheric profile which is weighted average between the
                profile in atms.dat and one of the standard internal profiles.
                The weighting is controlled by the value of the input
                parameter, AMIX.

  AMIX:         weighting factor, between 0 and 1, which controls how
                much of the atms.dat atmospheric profile to mix in
                with one of the standard internal profiles selected
                when IDATM is set to a negative number in the range
                (-1 to -6).  For example IDATM=-1 and AMIX=.7
                specifies a 70% weighting of atms.dat and a 30%
                weighting of profile TROPIC. (default=0)

  UW:           integrated water vapor amount (G/CM2)

  UO3:          integrated ozone concentration (ATM-CM)
                above the level ZTRP.  The default value of ZTRP=0,
                so UO3 usally specifies the total ozone column.
                (1 atm-cm = 1000 Dobson Units)

          NOTE: Use UW or UO3 to set the integrated amounts of water
                vapor or ozone in the model atmosphere.  Aside from
                multiplicative factors the vertical profile will be
                that of the original model atmosphere set by IDATM.
                The original unmodified density profile is used when
                UW or UO3 is negative.

  O3TRP:        integrated ozone concentration (ATM-CM) in troposphere.
 		i.e., for z.lt.ZTRP.  The original tropospheric density
                is used when O3TRP is negative. (default=-1.)

  ZTRP:         The altitude of the tropopause.  The parameters UO3 and
 		O3TRP sets the total column ozone in the stratosphere
 		and troposphere, respectively.  Note: since the default
 		value of ZTRP is zero, UO3 normally sets the integrated
                ozone amount of the entire atmosphere (default=0).


  XN2:          volume mixing ratio of N2   (PPM,  default = 781000.00 )
  XO2:          volume mixing ratio of O2   (PPM,  default = 209000.00 )
  XCO2:         volume mixing ratio of CO2  (PPM,  default =    360.00 )
  XCH4:         volume mixing ratio of CH4  (PPM,  default =      1.74 )
  XN2O:         volume mixing ratio of N2O  (PPM,  default =      0.32 )
  XCO:          volume mixing ratio of CO   (PPM,  default =      0.15 )
  XNH3:         volume mixing ratio of NH3  (PPM,  default =      5.0e-4)
  XSO2:         volume mixing ratio of SO2  (PPM,  default =      3.0e-4)
  XNO:          volume mixing ratio of NO   (PPM,  default =      3.0e-4)
  XHNO3:        volume mixing ratio of HNO3 (PPM,  default =      5.0e-5)
  XNO2:         volume mixing ratio of NO2  (PPM,  default =      2.3e-5)

                NOTE: Setting any of these factors to -1 causes that
                      atmospheric component to retain its nominal
                      mixing ratio defined in the US62 atmosphere
                      (as listed above).

                      The volume mixing ratio (VMR) of a given species
                      is adjusted by specifying the surface value of
                      its VMR in PPM.  The entire altitude profile is
                      multiplied by the ratio of the user specified
                      VMR and the nominal surface VMR.

                      There are no further re-normalizations of the
                      VMR.  Thus, the total of all the VMRs may be
                      greater or less than 10^6. By the way, the
                      default set of VMRs do not add up to 10^6
                      because of the exclusion of the noble gases
                      which do not have any radiative effects.

  XRSC:         sensitivity factor for Rayleigh scattering (default=1)
                This factor varies the strength of Rayleigh scattering
                for sensitivity studies.

  PBAR:         surface pressure in mbar.
                If PBAR .gt. 0 then each pressure is multiplied by the
                factor (PBAR/P0) where P0 is the surface pressure of the
                original atmosphere.
                If PBAR .le. 0, the original pressure profile is used.

  ZPRES:        Surface altitude in kilometers.
                This parameter is just an alternate way of setting the
                surface pressure, and should not be set when PBAR is
                specified.  When ZPRES is set PBAR is obtained by
                logarithmic interpolation on the current model's
                atmosphere pressure and altitude arrays. Changing
                ZPRES does not alter other parameters in the
                atmospheric model in any way.  Note that setting a
                large value of ZPRES may push the tropopause (where
                dT/dz=0) to an unrealistically high altitude.

  SCLH2O:       Water vapor scale height in km.

                If SCLH2O .gt. 0, then water vapor is vertically
                distributed as exp(-z/SCLH2O)

                If SCLH2O .le. 0, then the original vertical profile
                is used. Changing SCLH2O has no effect on the total
                water vapor amount.


                CLOUD PARAMETERS
                ================

  ZCLOUD:       Altitude of cloud layers (km) (up to 5 layers), Cloud
                layers may be specified in two ways.  To specify
                separate cloud layers, set ZCLOUD to a sequence of
                monotonically increasing altitudes.  Each value of
                ZCLOUD will set the altitude (above the surface) of the
                corresponding optical depth in the TCLOUD array.

                To specify a range of altitudes which will be filled
                by cloud, tag the second element of the range with a
                minus sign.  Consider,

                zcloud=1,-3,10,-15
                tcloud=4,0,8,0,0
                nre=6,6,8,9,10

                In this example two continuous cloud layers are
                defined, the lower one extends from 1 to 3 km and has
                a total optical depth of 4 and an effective radius of
                6um.  The upper cloud layer extends from 10 to 15 km,
                has a total optical thickness of 8 and a sliding value
                of effective radius which starts 8um at the bottom of
                the cloud and ramps up to 9um at 15km. However, beware
                that the actual location of the cloud layers is
                determined by the resolution and placement of vertical
                grid points in SBDART, as explained below.

                SBDART puts the i'th cloud layer at the highest vertical
                grid point, k, such that

                   z(k) .le. abs(ZCLOUD(i)+.001)

                NOTE: A cloud with a nominal altitude equal to that of
                one of the computational layer altitudes, Z(K),
                actually extends from Z(k) to the next higher grid
                point.  For example, a cloud layer at Z(k) will not
                affect the direct beam flux at Z(k-1) (one layer
                above) but will strongly affect it at Z(k).  (You can
                check this out your self by setting IOUT=10 and
                ZCLOUD=1 and messing around with ZOUT to get outputs
                just above or below the cloud).

                Suppose the bottom of your computational grid looks like

                 k         z(k)
                 ...       ...
                 30        2.5
                 31        2.0
                 32        1.5
                 33        1.0
                 34        0.5
                 35        0.0

                If you want a cloud to extend from 0.5 to 1.5 km, then
                set ZCLOUD= .5, -1.5.  Actually the same result would
                be obtained by setting the second element of ZCLOUD to
                anything between -(1.0+epsilon) and -1.5.

                Consider,

                         TCLOUD=[6., 0.0,  12., 0.0, 0]
                         ZCLOUD=[1.0,-6.0, 4.0,-9.0, 0]

                Here two overlapping cloud decks are specified, one
                extending from 1 to 6 km with a total optical
                thickness of 6, and the other from 4 to 9 km with a
                total thickness of 10.  Since the total optical
                thickness is spread over the total altitude range we
                would have 1 optical depth per km for the lower cloud
                deck and 2 optical depths per km for the second.  The
                code adds the effects of both cloud decks in the
                region of overlap.  So the above specification would
                yield 1 optical depth per km between 1 and 4 km, 3
                optical depths per km between 4 and 6 km and 2 optical
                depths per km between 4 and 9 km for a total optical
                depth of 18.

                If you have any doubt about where the code is putting
                the cloud, set ICKP=1 (see below) and check the
                diagnostic print out in rtinfo.00

                NOTE: do not try to put an ice cloud (NRE < 0) in a
                      cloud layer range which includes water cloud
                      (2 le NRE le 128).  In other words this specification
                      won't work:

                        ZCLOUD = 1,-4
                        TCLOUD = 1, 0
                        NRE    = 8,-1

  TCLOUD:       Optical thickness of cloud layer, (up to 5 values)

                TCLOUD specifies the cloud optical depth at a
                wavelength of 0.55um.  The rt codes compute cloud
                optical depth at other wavelengths using the relation,

                tau = TCLOUD*Q(wl)/Q(0.55um),

                where Q is the extinction efficiency which is a
                function of effective radius and wavelength (see
                discussion of LWP for a definition of Q).  The codes
                contain look-up tables of Q that cover effective radii
                in the range 2 to 128um for water clouds and for a
                single effective radius of 106um for ice clouds.  The
                wavelengths range is 0.29 to 333.33 um for water
                clouds and .29 to 20 um for ice clouds.

                When specifying an optical depth for a range of grid
                levels, the second TCLOUD entry corresponding to the
                cloud top altitude is usually set to zero.  This
                produces a uniform distribution of opacity over the
                altitude range.

                For example,

                ZCLOUD=[1 ,-5,0,0,0]   # uniformly distributed opacity
                TCLOUD=[10, 0,0,0,0]   # for a cloud of extent 4 km
                                       # 2.5 optical depths per km

                A linearly varying opacity distribution can be
                obtained by setting the second TCLOUD entry to a
                factor which represents the ratio of the opacity in
                the highest layer to that in the lowest layer

                For example,

                ZCLOUD=[1 ,-5,0,0,0]   # linearly distributed opacity
                TCLOUD=[10, 4,0,0,0]   # for a cloud of extent 4 km
                                       # between tau(1-2km)=1
                                       # between tau(2-3km)=2
                                       # between tau(3-4km)=3
                                       # between tau(4-5km)=4
                                       #
                                       # tau(total)=10
                                       # tau(4-5km)/tau(1-2km)=4

                NOTE: if r is the ratio of the top to bottom and t
                      is the average opacity per level then,

                           tau(top_level)=t*2r/(1+r)

                           tau(bot_level)=t*2/(1+r)

                NOTE: a linear increase in opacity, starting from zero
                      at the cloud bottom, is obtained by setting,

                           r=1 + 2*zdiff/dz

                      where dz is the grid spacing and zdiff is the total
                      altitude range over which the cloud extends.  This
                      formula assumes constant grid spacing over the
                      cloud altitude range.  Thus, if dz=1 then
                      ZCLOUD=[1,-5] and TCLOUD=[10,7] yeilds a linear
                      increase from zero.

                If the first element of TCLOUD is negative then the liquid
                water content of each level in the atmosphere is read from
                file usrcloud.  usrcloud is read with the following read
                statements:

                  read(13,*) nzz                           ; number of layers
                  read(13,*) (zz(i),lwc(i),re(i)),i=1,nzz) ; cloud information

                where zz is altitude above the surface in km
                      lwc is the liquid water content in g/m3
                      re is the effective radius in um

                The levels specified in usrcloud must match the levels
                used in the rest of the calculation.  I.e., zz(i)
                must either correspond to one of the standard atmospheres
                set with IDATM, or if IDATM=0, the user specified atmosphere
                read from atms.dat



  NRE:          Cloud drop effective radius (microns).    (up to 5 values)

                If NRE is specified as a floating point number in the
                range 2.0 to 128.0, a liquid water cloud of given
                effective radius is selected.

                If instead, a negative value is specified, a cirrus
                cloud composed of spherical ice particles is selected.
                Ice parameters are for a fixed effective radius of
                106um.  The ice particle size distribution is given by
                an empirical fit to in situ cirrus cloud data.  When
                NRE is negative, the magnitude of this parameter is
                used to modify the absorption strength of the photon
                interaction.  That is, the single scattering albedo
                (SSA) is modified as,

                     SSA=1.-abs(nre)*(1-SSA)

                NOTE: Some detailed scattering calculations indicate
                that the single scattering co-albedo (1-SSA) for
                complex crystal shapes can be much smaller than the
                co-albedo predicted using Mie theory for an equal
                area spherical crystal.  NRE in the range -1 / < r  N(r) >,

                where the angle brackets indicate integration over all
                drop radii.

                Another frequently used parameter to describe the size
                distribution is the mode radius, Rm, which is defined
                as the radius at which N(r) is maximized.  For our
                drop size distribution Rm=(p-1)*Ro.  Using the relation
                between Ro and NRE we find that, Rm=(p-1)*NRE/(p+2)

  LWP:          The liquid water path of a cloud is specified in units
                of g/m2.  This is another way to specify cloud optical
                depth.

                A linearly varying opacity distribution can be
                obtained by setting the second LWP entry to a
                factor which represents the ratio of the opacity in
                the highest layer to that in the lowest layer
                For more details see the discussion of TCLOUD.

                NOTE: a 1 mm column of liquid water = 1000 g/m2,

                NOTE: LWP and TCLOUD cannot be used at the same time

                NOTE: The cloud optical depth is related to LWP by

                             3 Q(wl) * LWP
                      tau =  -------------
                             4  RHO * NRE

                      where Q is the scattering efficiency and RHO is
                      the density of liquid water (1 g/cm3).  The
                      value of Q which applies to a distribution of
                      cloud droplets can be expressed in terms of the
                      extinction cross-section at a given wavelength and
                      liquid drop radius.


                      Let      sigma = extinction cross-section at a given
                                       wavelength and drop radius

                                   q = sigma/(pi*r^2) (dimensionless)

                                       where (pi*r^2) is the geometrical
                                       cross-section of the cloud drop

                      then Q is a weighted average over drop radius,
                      given by:

                             2              2
                      Q = < r q N(r) > / < r  N(r) >

                      for visible light Q is typically about 2
                      (dimensionless).

                      An example:
                      NRE = 10um and LWP= 200g/m2 = 0.2mm =>   tau = 30


  RHCLD:        The relative humidity within a cloud layer (a floating point
                value between 0.0 and 1.0).  RHCLD<0 disables the adjustment
                of relative humidity, in which case the relative humidity in
                the cloud layer follows solely from the temperature and
                water vapor density of the initial model atmosphere.

  KRHCLR:       If zero, water vapor mixing ratio in clear layers is
                proportionately reduced to maintain the water vapor
                path specified by WH. This option has no effect if
                RHCLD is negative or TCLOUD is zero. (default)

                if 1, the relative humidity in clear layers is unchanged.

                NOTE: if KRHCLR=1 and clouds are present, the actual
                water vapor path will differ from that specified by WH.
                On the other hand, if KRHCLR=0, the normalization procedure
                may drive the water vapor in clear layers to zero and still
                be unable produce a given WVP.


                STRATOSPHERIC AEROSOLS (LOWTRAN 7 model)
                =========================================

  JAER:         5 element array of stratospheric aerosol types

                0-no aerosol
                1-background stratospheric
                2-aged volcanic
                3-fresh volcanic
                4-meteor dust

  ZAER:         altitudes (above the surface) of stratospheric aerosol
                layers (km) Up to 5 layer altitudes may be specified.
                NOTE: even though these models are for stratospheric
                aerosols, the scattering layer may be placed anywhere
                within the numerical grid. See ZCLOUD for a discussion
                of how aerosol (cloud) layers are positioned within
                SBDART's computational grid.

  TAERST:       optical depth (at 0.55 microns) of each stratospheric
                aerosol layer.  Up to 5 layer optical depths may be
                specified.


                BOUNDARY LAYER AEROSOLS (BLA)
                =============================

  IAER:         Boundary layer aerosol type selector

                0-no boundary layer aerosols (all BLA parameters ignored)

                1-rural

                2-urban

                3-oceanic

                4-tropospheric

                5-user defined spectral dependence of BLA

                  The wavelength dependence of the aerosol scattering
                  parameters are replaced by those read in from input
                  parameters wlbaer, tbaer, wbaer and gbaer.  Between
                  1 and 47 spectral values may be specified.


                NOTE: the spectral dependence of the boundary layer aerosol
                      models (IAER=1,2,3,4) vary with relative humidity.
                      See SUBROUTINE AEROSOL for details.

                NOTE: Don't be mislead by the term "boundary layer
                      aerosol". The BLA models, IAER=1,2,3,4
                      were originally developed to describe aerosols
                      in the lower atmosphere.  However in SBDART, the
                      default vertical density of BLA falls off
                      exponentially, and affects regions above the
                      normal extent of the boundary layer.  The
                      vertical influence of these aerosols may be
                      confined to a specified boundary layer altitude
                      with the optional parameters ZBAER and DBAER.

  RHAER:        The spectral dependence of the boundary layer aerosol
                scattering parameters are sensitive to relative humidity.
                Use input parameter RHAER to set the relative humidity
                used in the boundary layer aerosol model. Set RHAER=-1
                (the default value) to use the ambient surface relative
                humidity.  RHAER has no effect when IAER = 5.

  VIS:          (Horizontal Path) Visibility (km) at 0.55 microns
                due to boundary layer aerosols.  This parameter does
                not set the optical depth for the user defined aerosol
                model (IAER=5), but does affect that model through
                the vertical structure (see below).


                NOTE: unlike the stratospheric aerosols, the boundary
                      layer aerosols have predefined vertical density
                      distributions.  These vertical structure models
                      vary with visibility.  (see discussion of ZBAER
                      and DBAER)

                NOTE: The boundary layer aerosol optical depth
                      (absorption + scattering) at 0.55 microns
                      is given by

                      tauaero(0.55um) = 3.912 * integral ( n(z)/n(0) dz) / VIS

                      where n(z) is the vertical profile of aerosol
                      density.  For the 5 and 23 km visibility models
                      the indicated integral is 1.05 and 1.51 km,
                      respectively. So,

                      tauaero(0.55um) = 3.912*(1.05*w+1.51*(1-w))/vis

                      where w is a weighting factor between the two
                      extremes and is given by

                           (1/vis-1/23)
                       w = ----------       ,    5 < vis < 23
                           (1/5-1/23)


                       w = 1                ,    vis < 5

                       w = 0                ,    vis > 23

                NOTE: Visibility is defined as the horizontal distance
                      in km at which a beam of light at 0.55um is
                      attenuated by a factor of 0.02.

                      n(0)*sigma*VIS = -ln(.02), or

                      VIS = 3.912/(n(0)*sigma)

                      where sigma is the aerosol absorption+scattering
                      cross-section at 0.55 microns.  See Glossary of
                      Meteorology, American Meteorology Society, 1959

  ZBAER:        Altitude grid for custom aerosol vertical profile (km)
                Up to 50 altitude points may be specified.  ZBAER is
                active for all values of IAER.

  DBAER:        Aerosol density at ZBAER altitude grid points, active for
                all values of IAER.  Up to 50 density values may be
                specified. The number of density values must match the
                number of ZBAER.  The units used to specify aerosol
                density is arbitrary, since the overall profile is
                scaled by the user specified total vertical optical
                depth.  The aerosol density at all computational grid
                points is found through logarithmic interpolation on
                the ZBAER and DBAER values.  The normal vertical
                profile from 5s is used when DBAER is unset.

                For example

                   ZBAER=0,1,100
                   DBAER=1000,500,1

                specifies a aerosol density profile that drops by a
                factor 2 (exponential fall off) between 0 and 1km altitude
                and then by a factor of 500 between 1 and 100 km.

                If DBAER is set but ZBAER is not set, then the elements
                of DBAER are used to set the aerosol density for each
                computational layer, starting from the bottom layer.

                For example,

                   DBAER=10,0,1,0

                puts aerosol in the first and third layer.

                If neither ZBAER or DBAER are set, the boundary layer
                aerosols are assumed to follow a pre-defined vertical
                distribution which drops off exponentially with a
                scale height between 1.05 and 1.51 km depending
                visibility (see VIS).  Thus, even if visibility is not
                used to set the vertical optical depth it can affect
                the result through the vertical profile. Note that
                ZBAER and DBAER do not affect the total vertical
                optical depth of aerosols. (See discussion for VIS).

  TBAER:        Vertical optical depth of boundary layer aerosols at
                0.55 um.  TBAER input is significant for all values of
                IAER. When IAER=1,2,3,4 the specified value of TBAER
                supersedes the aerosol optical depth derived from
                input parameter VIS (but VIS still controls vertical
                structure model unless DBAER and ZBAER are set).

  QBAER         QBAER is the extinction efficiency.  QBAER is only active
                when IAER=5.  When TBAER is set, QBAER sets the spectral
                dependence of the extinction optical depth as,

                   tau= tbaer * Qext(wave_length)/Qext(0.55um)

                where Qext(wave_length) = QBAER interpolated to wavel_length

                If TBAER is not set, then the values of QBAER are interpreted
                as extinction optical depths at each wavelength WLBAER.

                For example, the Multi Filter Rotating Shadowband
                Radiometer (MFRSR) installed at the Southern Great
                Plains ARM site is able to retrieve aerosol optical
                depth in 6 SW spectral channels.  This information may
                be supplied to SBDART by setting,

                  wlbaer= .414,  .499,  .609,  .665,  .860,  .938
                  qbaer= 0.109, 0.083, 0.062, 0.053, 0.044, 0.041
                  wbaer=6*.9
                  gbaer=6*0.8

                This spectral information is iterpolated or extrapolated to
                all wavelengths using logarithmic fitting on QBAER and
                linear fitting on WBAER and GBAER.  Many aerosol types
                display a power law dependence of extinction efficiency on
                wavelength. The logarithmic interpolation/extrapolation on
                QBAER will reproduce this behavior if it exists in the
                input data.


  WLBAER        Wavelengths points (um) for user defined aerosol spectral
                dependence.  Only used when IAER=5. WLBAER (and QBAER) need
                not be specified if a single spectral point is set.  In this
                case the aerosol optical depth is extrapolated to other
                wavelengths using a power law (see ABAER)

  WBAER:        Single scattering albedo used with IAER=5.

                WBAER represents the single scattering albedo of
                boundary layer aerosols at wavelengths WLBAER.

  GBAER:        Asymmetry factor used with IAER=5

                GBAER represents the asymmetry factor of boundary
                layer aerosols at wavelengths WLBAER.  Number of
                values must match the number of TBAER.

                GBAER is ignored when parameter PMAER is set.

  PMAER:        Legendre moments of the scattering phase function of
                boundary layer aerosols, only active for IAER=5.  The
                Legendre moments of the phase function are defined as
                the following integral over the scattering phase
                function, f:


                               /                      /  /
                    pmaer(i) = | f(mu) P(i,mu) d mu  /   | f(mu) d mu
                               /                    /    /

                where P(i,mu) is the Legendre polynomial, mu is the cosine
                of the scattering angle, and the range of the integrals are
                from -1 to 1.  The Legendre moment for i=0 is always
                one.  Hence, the zero'th moment is assumed by SBDART and
                should not be specified.

                Unlike the previous boundary layer aerosol parameters, you
                need to specify at least NSTR values for each wavelength
                point, for a total of NSTR*NAER values, where NAER is
                the number of wavelength points supplied.  The order of
                specification should be such that wavelength variation is
                most rapid.  For example, here is a case with 4 wavelengths
                and 6 streams:

                     nstr=6
                     wlbaer=.400,.500,.600,.700
                     pmaer= 0.80,0.70,0.60,0.50,
                            0.64,0.49,0.36,0.25,
                            0.51,0.34,0.22,0.12,
                            0.41,0.24,0.13,0.06,
                            0.33,0.17,0.08,0.03,
                            0.26,0.12,0.05,0.02

  ABAER:        Wavelength (Angstrom model) exponent used to extrapolate
                BLA extinction efficiency to wavelengths outside the
                range of WLBAER [Qext ~ (lambda)^(-abaer)].  This parameter
                is only operative when IAER=5.

                If ABAER is set to a positive number, then that value
                is used as a power-law wavelength dependence to
                extrapolate the extinction efficiency for wavelengths
                less than WLBAER(1) or greater than WLBAER(nn) (where
                nn is the number of specified values).  If ABAER is
                not set, the wavelength extrapolation is based on the
                last two specified points (wlbaer(1),wlbaer(2) or
                wlbaer(nn-1),wlbaer(nn)).  If ABAER is not set and a
                single wavelength is set, then a spectrally constant
                extinction efficiency is used.


                =============================================================


  NOTHRM:       nothrm=-1 => Thermal emission turned on only for wavelengths
                             greater than 2.0 um (default)

                             (Note: During daylight hours solar
                             radiation is a factor of about 1.e5
                             greater than thermal radiation at 2.0um)

                nothrm=0  => Thermal emission turned on for all wavelengths

                nothrm=1  => No thermal emission

                NOTE: If thermal emission is desired, be sure that the
                      temperature steps in the atmospheric model are small
                      enough to resolve changes in the Planck function.  The
                      original version of the DISORT radiative transfer
                      module issued a warning message if the temperature
                      difference between successive levels in the atmosphere
                      exceeded 20 K.  All the standard atmospheres violate
                      this condition for at least 1 stratospheric layer.  To
                      avoid clutter in SBDART's standard output, I have
                      disabled the warning message.  If near-IR thermal
                      emission from the stratosphere is important to your
                      application, you should supply SBDART with a new model
                      atmosphere with higher resolution in the stratosphere.
                      (see ZGRID1, ZGRID2, an NGRID)


  KDIST:        KDIST=0 causes the optical depth due to molecular
                absorption is set to the negative log of the LOWTRAN
                transmission function.  This approximation is not
                appropriate for cases in which multiple scattering is
                important, but is not very wrong when the molecular
                absorption is weak or the scattering optical depth is
                small.

                KDIST=1 causes SBDART to use the LOWTRAN7
                k-distribution model of absorption by atmospheric
                gases.  Since a three term exponential fit is used,
                SBDART execution times are up to 3 times longer when
                KDIST > 0.

                KDIST=2 causes the k-fit transmissions to exactly
                match the LOWTRAN transmission along the solar beam
                direction.  This option may be useful when computing
                surface irradiance under clouds of optical thickness
                less than about 10.  This is because in this thin
                cloud case much of the radiation which reaches the
                surface propagates along the direct beam direction.

                KDIST=3 causes the k-fit transmission to exactly
                match the LOWTRAN transmission along the solar beam
                direction for parts of the atmosphere above a scattering
                layer.  As the scattering optical depth increases above
                1 the k-fit factors are ramped back to there original
                LOWTRAN values. This is the default.

  ZGRID1:       These three parameters can be used to change the grid
  ZGRID2:       resolution of the model atmosphere.  ZGRID1 controls
  NGRID:        the resolution near the bottom of the grid while
                ZGRID2 sets the maximum permissible step size (at the
                top of the grid).  NGRID sets the number of grid
                points.  For example ZGRID1=.5, ZGRID2=30, NGRID=45
                specifies a 45 element grid with a resolution of .5 km
                throughout the lower part of the grid and a largest step
                of 30 km.

                The regridding is performed after the call to
                subroutine ATMS.  This allows regridding of the
                standard internal atmospheres as well as user
                specified atmospheres (read with IDATM=0).  No matter
                how many grid points were used to specify the original
                atmosphere, the new regridded atmosphere will contain
                NGRID vertical array elements.  The default value of
                ZGRID2 and NGRID are currently set to 30km and 45,
                respectively.  The internal parameter, mxly, sets the
                maximum number of levels allowed.  Currently, a
                maximum of 50 layers are allowed.

                Setting ZGRID1=0 (the default) causes the initial
                (un-modified) atmospheric model to be used.

                If ZGRID1 is negative SBDART terminates execution
                after printing out the regridded values of Z,P,T,WH,WO
                to standard out.  This option can be used to preview the
                effect of a given set of abs(ZGRID1),ZGRID2 and NGRID
                values.

                OUTPUT OPTIONS
                ==============

  ICKP:         DIAGNOSTIC OUTPUT SELECTOR

                The ICKP print flag is set up to control a large
                variety of diagnostic output.  Different options can be
                independently selected by packing into ICKP the binary
                sequence which represents the print option settings.
                The diagnostic output is sent to files rtinfo.nn where
                nn is given below,

                 n
      nn        2
      --        --

      00        1  print atmospheric profile and absorption diagnostic
                   for a single wavelength

      01        2  cloud parameters, extinction efficiency, asymmetry
                   factor and single scatter albedo

      02        4  gaseous absorption integrals and optical depth

      03        8  Optical depth due to Rayleigh, aerosols, cloud
                   molecular continuum and line, single scattering albedo
                   and asymmetry factor. Additional printouts for each
                   term in the k-fit are produced if KDIST=1.

      04       16  print flux divergence at each level in the atmosphere

                For example to obtain gaseous absorption and cloud
                parameter info on the same run set ICKP = 2+4 = 6.
                To obtain all diagnostic information set ICKP = 31.
                About a page worth of data is written for each
                wavelength in the calculation.

                NOTE: Diagnostic output is overwritten for each new
                      run of the rt code.




  ZOUT:         2 element array specifying BOT and TOP altitude
                points (km) for IOUT output.  For example ZOUT=0,50
                specifies output information for 0 and 50 km. The
                surface is always set at zero.  Note that the actual
                layers for which output is generated is determined by
                finding the atmospheric layers nearest the chosen
                value of ZOUT(1) and ZOUT(2).  (default = 0,100)


  IOUT:         STANDARD OUTPUT SELECTOR
       value
       -----
         1.     one output record for each wavelength,
                output quantities are,

                   WL,FFV,TOPDN,TOPUP,TOPDIR,BOTDN,BOTUP,BOTDIR

                   WL    = wavelength                         (microns)
                   FFV   = filter function value
                   TOPDN = total downward flux at ZOUT(2) km  (w/m2/micron)
                   TOPUP = total upward flux at ZOUT(2) km    (w/m2/micron)
                   TOPDIR= direct downward flux at ZOUT(2) km (w/m2/micron)
                   BOTDN = total downward flux at ZOUT(1) km  (w/m2/micron)
                   BOTUP = total upward flux at  ZOUT(1) km   (w/m2/micron)
                   BOTDIR= direct downward flux at ZOUT(1) km (w/m2/micron)

                   NOTE: When ISAT ne 1 these radiometric quantities
                         are each multiplied by the filter function,
                         To get the actual specific irradiance divide
                         by PHI(WL).

         2.     one output record per wavelength
                output quantities are,

              WL,TXH2O,TXCO2,TXO3,TXN2O,TXCO,TXCH4,TXO2N2,TXTRC,TXTOT,TXMOL

                   WL     = wavelength
                   TXH2O  = -log transmission due to water vapor
                   TXCO2  = -log transmission due to co2
                   TXO3   = -log transmission due to ozone
                   TXN2O  = -log transmission due to n2o
                   TXCO   = -log transmission due to co
                   TXCH4  = -log transmission due to ch4
                   TXO2N2 = -log transmission due to o2 and n2
                   TXTRC  = -log transmission due to trace gases
                   TXTOT  = -log transmission due to all gases
                   TXMOL  = optical depth due to rayleigh scattering

                   NOTE: if you define the optical depth as
                         transmission = exp(-tau) then
                         -log transmission = tau

         3.     Averaged gas absorption over solar spectrum and
                filter function. Output format:

                write(*,'(5x,11a13)') 'z','airmass','h2o','co2','o3',
               &             'n2o','co','ch4','o2+n2','trace','total'
                do j=nz,1,-1
                   write(*,'(i5,1p11e13.5)') j,z(j),airmass(j),
               &    (-log(eps+trnsgas(i,j)/phidw),i=1,nta)

                where j is the layer index
                      z is the layer height (km)
                      airmass = g * integral(rho dz/mu) / Pzero
                          where g=9.8m/s2, pzero 1013.25mb
                          rho is the mass desity of air, and
                          mu is the cosine of the solar zenith angle (SZA)
                      trnsgas is the transmission due to the species
                          listed in the title line

                the output quantity is the negative log of the transmission
                which, aside from non-Beer's law behaviour, is like
                optical depth.  If the input quantity NF is non-zero
                then the transmission is averaged over the solar spectrum.
                If NF=0 the average is over the filter function.
                Remember to set NF=0 and SZA=0 when dealing with LW radiation.



        5.      nzen+3) records for each wavelength.  Output format:
                     write(*,*) '"tbf'     ; Block id (used in postprocessors)

                     do m=1,nw
                       write(*,*)
                    &    wl,ffv,topdn,topup,topdir,botdn,botup,botdir
                       write(*,*)  nphi,nzen
                       write(*,*) (phi(j),j=1,nphi)
                       write(*,*) (uzen(j),j=1,nzen)
                       do i=nzen,1,-1
                         write(*,*) (uurs(i,k),k=1,nphi)
                       enddo
                     enddo

                where,

                   WL    = wavelength                         (microns)
                   FFV   = filter function value
                   TOPDN = total downward flux at ZOUT(2) km  (w/m2/micron)
                   TOPUP = total upward flux at ZOUT(2) km    (w/m2/micron)
                   TOPDIR= direct downward flux at ZOUT(2) km (w/m2/micron)
                   BOTDN = total downward flux at ZOUT(1) km  (w/m2/micron)
                   BOTUP = total upward flux at  ZOUT(1) km   (w/m2/micron)
                   BOTDIR= direct downward flux at ZOUT(1) km (w/m2/micron)
                   NPHI  = number of user azimuth angles
                   NZEN  = number of user zenith angles
                   PHI   = user specified azimuth angles      (degrees)
                   UZEN  = user specified zenith angles       (degrees)
                   UURS  = radiance at user angles at         (w/m2/um/str)
                           altitude ZOUT(2) (top)


                NOTE: The radiance output from SBDART represents
                      scattered radiation. It does not include the
                      solar direct beam.  Also, keep in mind that UURS
                      represents the radiance at the user specified
                      sample directions.  Hence, computing the
                      irradiance by an angular integration of UURS
                      will not yield BOTDN because of the neglect of
                      the direct beam, and it will probably not yield
                      (BOTDN-BOTDIR) because of under-sampling.


        6.      same as IOUT=5 except radiance is for ZOUT(1) altitude
                (bottom)

        7.      radiative flux at each layer for each wavelength.  This
                output option can produce a huge amount of output if many
                wavelength sample points are used

                   write(*,*) '"fzw'       ; block id (used in postprocessors)
                   write(*,*) nz           ; number of z layers
                   write(*,*) nw           ; number of wavelengths

                   do j=1,nw
                     write(*,*) wl
                     write(*,*)
                  &    (Z(i),i=nz,1,-1),   ; altitude              (km)
                  &    (fdird(i),i=1,nz),  ; downward direct flux  (w/m2/um)
                  &    (fdifd(i),i=1,nz),  ; downward diffuse flux (w/m2/um)
                  &    (flxdn(i),i=1,nz),  ; total downward flux   (w/m2/um)
                  &    (flxup(i),i=1,nz)   ; total upward flux     (w/m2/um)
                   enddo


       10.      one output record per run, integrated over wavelength.
                output quantities are, (integrations by trapezoid rule)

                   WLINF,WLSUP,PHIDW,TOPDN,TOPUP,TOPDIR,BOTDN,BOTUP,BOTDIR

                   WLINF = lower wavelength limit             (microns)
                   WLSUP = upper wavelength limit             (microns)
                   FFEW  = filter function equivalent width   (microns)
                   TOPDN = total downward flux at ZOUT(2) km  (w/m2)
                   TOPUP = total upward flux at ZOUT(2) km    (w/m2)
                   TOPDIR= direct downward flux at ZOUT(2) km (w/m2)
                   BOTDN = total downward flux at ZOUT(1) km  (w/m2)
                   BOTUP = total upward flux at  ZOUT(1) km   (w/m2)
                   BOTDIR= direct downward flux at ZOUT(1) km (w/m2)

        11.     radiant fluxes at each atmospheric layer integrated
                over wavelength. Output format:

                   write(*,*) nz,phidw
                   do i=1,nz
                     write(*,*) zz,fxdn(i),fxup(i),fxdir(i),dfdz
                   enddo

                 where,  nz    = number of atmospheric layers
                         ffew  = filter function equivalent width(um)
                         zz    = layer altitudes                 (km)
                         fxdn  = downward flux (direct+diffuse)  (W/m2)
                         fxup  = upward flux                     (W/m2)
                         fxdir = downward flux, direct beam only (W/m2)
                         dfdz  = radiant energy flux divergence  (mW/m3)

        20.     radiance output at ZOUT(2) km.

                Output format:

                   write(*,*)  wlinf,wlsup,ffew,topdn,topup,topdir,
                  &            botdn,botup,botdir
                   write(*,*)  nphi,nzen
                   write(*,*)  (phi(i),i=1,nphi)
                   write(*,*)  (uzen(j),j=1,nzen)
                   write(*,*)  ((r(i,j),i=1,nphi),j=1,nzen)

                The first record of output is the same as format IOUT=10
                (WLINF,WLSUP,FFEW,TOPDN,TOPUP,TOPDIR,BOTDN,BOTUP,BOTDIR)
                addition records contain:

                   NPHI  = number of user azimuth angles
                   NZEN  = number of user zenith angles
                   PHI   = user azimuth angles (nphi values)
                   UZEN  = user zenith angles (nzen values)
                   R     = radiance array (nphi,nzen) (W/m2/sr)

        21.     same as IOUT=20 except radiance output at ZOUT(1) km.



        22.     radiance and flux at each atmospheric layer integrated
                over wavelength.

                Output format:

                   write(*,*) nphi,nzen,nz,ffew
                   write(*,*) (phi(i),i=1,nphi)
                   write(*,*) (uzen(j),j=1,nzen)
                   write(*,*) (z(k),k=nz,1,-1)
                   write(*,*) (fxdn(k),k=1,nz)
                   write(*,*) (fxup(k),k=1,nz)
                   write(*,*) (fxdir(k),k=1,nz)
                   write(*,*) (((uurl(i,j,k),i=1,nphi),j=1,nzen),k=1,nz)

                 where,  nphi  = number of user specified azimuth angles
                         nzen  = number of user specified zenith angles
                         nz    = number of atmospheric layers
                         ffew  = filter function equivalent width (um)
                         phi   = user specified anizmuth angles   (degrees)
                         uzen  = user specified zenith angles     (degrees)
                         z     = altitudes of atmospheric layers  (km)
                         fxdn  = downward flux (direct+diffuse)   (W/m2)
                         fxup  = upward flux                      (W/m2)
                         fxdir = downward flux, direct beam only  (W/m2)
                         uurl  = radiance at each layer           (W/m2/str)

        23.     same as IOUT=20 except
                lower hemisphere radiance output corresponds to ZOUT(1)
                upper hemisphere radiance output corresponds to ZOUT(2)
                Use this output format to determine radiance above and
                and below a scattering layer.  For example, if ZCLOUD=1
                and TCLOUD=10, you can get the scattered radiation field
                above and below the cloud with, IOUT=23, ZOUT=1,2.


==========================================================================



                       DISORT options (NAMELIST $DINPUT):
                       =====================================

  DELTAM:      if set to true, use delta-m method (see Wiscombe, 1977).
               This method is essentially a delta-Eddington
               approximation applied to multiple radiation streams.

               In general, for a given number of streams, intensities
               and fluxes will be more accurate for phase functions
               with a large forward peak if 'DELTAM' is set
               TRUE. Intensities within 10 degrees or so of the
               forward scattering direction will often be less
               accurate, however, so when primary interest centers in
               this so-called 'aureole region', DELTAM should be set
               FALSE.(default=true)

  NSTR:        number of computational zenith angles used.  NSTR must
               be divisible by 2.  Using NSTR=4 reduces the time
               required for flux calculations by about a factor of 5
               compared to NSTR=16, with very little penalty in
               accuracy (about 0.5% difference when DELTAM is set
               true).


  IMOM:        Setting IMOM gt 0 causes SBDART to read a direct
               access file, pmom.dat, which contains cloud scattering
               parameters.  If IMOM=1 the code uses the Legendre
               expansion coefficients of the phase function read
               from pmom.dat.  If IMOM=2 Q, omega and g parameters are
               used but the phase function coefficients are not.
               Instead, the phase function is derived using the
               Henyey-Greenstein approximation.  The default (IMOM=0)
               is to use the Q, omega and g parameters computed from
               the Wiscombe's Mie scattering code, which are
               hard-coded into SBDART. The file format of pmom.dat is
               described in subroutine cloudqwp (module cloudpar).



                      Radiance output
                      ===============


  NZEN:        Number of user zenith angles.  If this parameter is
               specified SBDART will output radiance values at NZEN
               zenith angles, evenly spaced between the first two
               values of input array UZEN.  For example,

                nzen=9,
                uzen=0,80

               will cause output at zenith angles 0,10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80.

  UZEN:        User zenith angles.  If NZEN is specified then UZEN is
               interpreted as the limits of the zenith angle range,
               and only the first two elements are required.  If NZEN
               is not specified then up to NSTR values of UZEN may be
               specified.  (i.e., the zenith angle at which the
               radiation propagates)

               * UZEN = 0    => radiation propagates directly up
               * UZEN < 90   => radiation in upper hemisphere
               * UZEN > 90   => radiation in lower hemisphere
               * UZEN = 180  => radiation propagates directly down


  NPHI:        Number of user azimuth angles.  If this parameter is
               specified SBDART will output radiance values at NPHI
               azimuth angles, evenly spaced between the first two
               values of input array PHI.  For example, nphi=7,
               phi=0,180 will cause output at zenith angles
               0,30,60,90,120,150,180

  PHI:         User azimuth angles.  If NPHI is specified then PHI is
               interpreted as the limits of the azimuth angle range,
               and only the first two elements are required.  If NPHI
               is not specified then up to NSTR values of PHI may be
               specified.

               NOTE: Azimuth increases clockwise looking down on the
               Earth's surface. If PHI0=0, PHI is interpreted as a
               relative azimuth angle from the forward scattering
               direction.  See discussion of PHI0

               * PHI-PHI0 < 90   => forward scattered radiation
               * PHI-PHI0 > 90   => backward scattered radiation

               For example, if the sun is setting in the West,
               radiation propagating to the South-East has a relative
               azimuth of 45 degrees.

               NOTE: A radiance calculation is performed if and only
                     if some values of UZEN are specified and a radiance
                     output format is selected (see IOUT).  If UZEN
                     is specified and PHI is not, then an azimuth avereaged
                     calculation is performed.  In any case, the number
                     of values specified for UZEN and PHI need not
                     match.

               NOTE: SBDART is currently configured to model radiation
                     with at most 20 computational zenith angles and
                     20 azimuthal modes.  While these limits may be
                     expanded, be aware that running SBDART with a
                     much larger number will significantly increase
                     running time and memory requirements.  In tests
                     performed on a DEC Alpha, the execution time
                     scaled roughly with NSTR^2, for NSTR less than
                     20.  The code's memory usage also scales roughly
                     as NSTR^2.

  PHI0:        azimuth angle of incident beam.  Use this parameter
               to relate the radiance output to fixed navigational
               headings.  For example if the sun is positioned at
               zenith=10 and azimuth=110 degrees (measured clockwise
               from due north) then setting PHI0=-70 degrees will
               cause PHI to be interpreted as a compass direction.  In
               this example the forward scattering peak will be found
               at uzen=170, phi=-70.  Otherwise if PHI0 is zero (the
               default value), PHI is interpreted as a relative
               azimuth angle (i.e., relative to the forward scattering
               direction).

               If the solar zenith and azimuth are set using IDAY,
               TIME, ALAT, and ALON, then PHI0 is automatically set to
               the computed solar azimuth plus 180 degrees. In this
               case the input value of PHI0 is ignored.


                    radiation boundary conditions
                    =============================

 IBCND:
       = 0 : general case: boundary conditions any combination of:
              * beam illumination from the top      ( see FBEAM)
              * isotropic illumination from the top ( see FISOT)
              * thermal emission from the top       ( see TEMIS,TTEMP)
              * internal thermal emission sources   ( see TEMPER)
              * reflection at the bottom            ( see LAMBER,ALBEDO,HL)
              * thermal emission from the bottom    ( see BTEMP)
       = 1 : isotropic illumination from top and bottom, in order to get
             ALBEDO and transmissivity of the entire medium vs. incident
             beam angle;
             The only input variables considered in this case are
             NLYR,DTAUC,SSALB,PMOM,NSTR,USRANG,NUMU,UMU,ALBEDO,DELTAM,
             PRNT,HEADER, and the array dimensions.
             NOPLNK,LAMBER are assumed TRUE, the bottom boundary can have
             any ALBEDO.  the sole output is ALBMED,TRNMED.  UMU is
             interpreted as the array of beam angles in this case.
             If USRANG = TRUE they must be positive and in increasing
             order, and will be returned this way; internally, however, the
             negatives of the UMU's are added, so MAXUMU must be at least
             2*NUMU.
             If USRANG = FALSE, UMU is returned as the NSTR/2 positive
             quadrature angle cosines, in increasing order.



 FISOT:     intensity of top-boundary isotropic illumination.  (units
            w/sq m if thermal sources active, otherwise arbitrary
            units).  corresponding incident flux is pi (3.14159...)
            times 'FISOT'.


 TEMIS:     emissivity of top layer, needed only if NOTHRM=0



          DISORT specific output options:
          ===================================
PRNT:
PRNT(1)   print input information
PRNT(2)   print layer-by-layer fluxes
PRNT(3)   print azimuthally averaged intensities at quadrature angles
PRNT(4)   print azimuthally averaged intensities at user angles
PRNT(5)   print intensities at user angles
PRNT(6)   print planar albedo and transmissivity of medium
                  as a function of incident beam angle
PRNT(7)   print phase function moments (iff prnt(1) true)


=========================================================================